How does sublimation transfer printing work?

Sublimation transfer Printing is a chemical process where a solid turns into a gas without going through a liquid stage.
sublimation transfer printing
 
What is Sublimation Printing?
Sublimation printing, also known as dye sublimation printing, is a popular printing method for transferring images onto suitable materials. Typical printing methods involve a step with water, where the solid turns to water before a gaseous state. Sublimation printing does not involve the liquid step but goes right from solid to gas due to a chemical reaction (like dry ice).
 
How does sublimation transfer printing work?
This typically involves the use of a digital printer to produce images on sublimation transfer paper with sublimation ink. The sublimation paper is then placed into a heat press with the material and exposed to high temperatures of about 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. This is when the ink and transfer material turn from solid to gas. Once they are in a gas state, they permeate the fibers of the material.
 
When the heat is removed from the transfer paper and substrate, the ink that has permeated the fibers solidifies and is locked permanently into place by the transfer material. Not only does the heat release the gas from the sublimation ink, but it opens the pores of the material you are transferring the image to. Once the pressure and heat are released, the sublimation ink returns to its solid state and the fabric pores close, trapping the ink inside.
 
With the sublimation process, the ink becomes part of the fabric as opposed to a layer on top of it. The resulting transfer lasts much longer than heat transfer paper results.
 
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